Regional Collaboration to Make MPAs Effective

Over nearly two decades, WildAid worked with the Galapagos National Park Service to build a comprehensive marine protection system, slowly garnering community support, developing a robust sensor suite, building their patrol vessel fleet, and creating training systems. While illegal activity still occurs within its borders, the results have been impressive. In 2009 at least 12,000 sharks were being poached annually from the Park’s waters, today it has the highest concentration of sharks in the world. Since 2011, WildAid has developed a model for regional collaboration using peer-to-peer exchanges to connect the people in the field with their peers in other locations so together they can share best practices and learn through mutual experience.

By bringing together the right people, in the right place, at the right time, using the right systems, our peer-to-peer exchanges have led to increased collaboration between MPA managers and the creation of support networks for our sites. For example, in 2018, we hosted a peer exchange between rangers in Galapagos National Park and Santa Elena Marine Reserve in Ecuador’s coast. The rangers of Santa Elena had previously lacked the confidence to intercept commercial fishing vessels that were illegally fishing in their waters. With the help of the Galapagos rangers, they learned how to do so safely and effectively, and managed to intercept their first vessel independently that same week.

Bringing together the right people means that we identify the best participants to achieve the exchange’s primary goal. For example, in Mexico, we hoped to foster political will to establish a Marine Protection System in the Midriff Islands and enact joint patrols between the Mexican Navy and the park rangers. Thus, we led peer exchanges in 2015 and 2016 with high-level officials from Ecuador’s Ministry of Environment, Navy, and park directors, to meet with their peers in Mexico to present their successes using this approach to enforcement. As a result, Mexican officials were not only impressed with the system but approved investments in surveillance for the Midriff Islands. Likewise, the Santa Elena exchange focused on improving operations, which meant that instead of high-level government officials, we brought together the rangers conducting daily patrols so they could learn from their peers.

The right place means that we host our exchanges at the sites that can exemplify a complete Marine Protection System or a particularly solid approach to an issue, and the visiting countries are often those where we hope to gain political will for protection or sites that have specific challenges that can be solved by shared learning. For example, when we conduct exchanges with Galapagos rangers, it often helps to host the exchange within the Galapagos National Park to demonstrate what an effective patrol looks like in their waters, provide tours of their control center, and show their everyday work in fisheries monitoring at the dock. Likewise, in Mexico, the exchange took place in Baja California to show the Mexican officials the beauty of their protected areas, the daily work their rangers conducted, and demonstrate its conservation-importance.

The right time means that we provide plenty of time for unstructured conversation and interactions during our peer exchanges. For example, in July 2018, we hosted a regional workshop in the Galapagos with 7 countries and participants representing 30+ MPAs. While we had an agenda for presentations, field demonstrations, outings to the site’s control center or other specific locales, and breakout sessions, we also made sure to provide opportunities for our participants to interact with each other (such as during field trips) so that they could form those bonds and trust that is so important in a connection. As a result, and nearly 8 months later, our participants are still active in a WhatsApp WildAid created event participants, and continually seek ways to collaborate.

Lastly, the right systems mean that we provide our participants with avenues for connection after the event, such as sharing contact information between participants, setting up WhatsApp groups, and even providing follow-up events to continue the discussion. This was helpful when our Galapagos control center spotted an illegal fishing vessel on the coast of Ecuador using their vessel monitoring system and alerted Machalilla marine reserve about the vessel. The timely notice allowed the Rangers to head out and intercept the vessel. Likewise, the Ecuadorian Navy sends regular reports to the Galapagos National Park rangers about their findings using electronic monitoring, due to their long-standing relationships formed by joint trainings and communication.

Overall, we believe in the power of regional collaboration to amplify and catalyze effective marine conservation worldwide. Being a ranger can be a lonely endeavor, and by creating these support networks, we help rangers find peers doing similar work, facing similar issues, and celebrating similar successes.

That is why we will be using an approach we call Regional Leadership Hubs to continue scaling WildAid’s marine program. This approach incorporates what we’ve learned from peer exchanges, and allows MPA practitioners to learn from their peers in the region that share similar threats, approaches, and cultural nuances. Our hubs will have a set curriculum to enable our partners to better establish a complete Marine Protection System.

We look forward to sharing additional lessons learned with you as we develop our Regional Leadership Hubs.

Discovery Workshops to Identify New Partners

There are over 15,000 marine protected areas (MPAs) worldwide, yet nearly 60% of these are poorly managed and enforced, making them less effective at protecting marine species. WildAid’s marine program builds complete Marine Protection Systems through our BLUEprint for MPA Success to stop illegal fishing, enforce regulations, allow wildlife recovery, and encourage positive economic opportunity for communities.

In Galapagos, there was once extensive illegal fishing, with an estimated 12,000 sharks poached annually in 2009, and park rangers did not have the skills, tools, or resources to do their job. WildAid partnered with the Ecuadorian Ministry of Environment and Galapagos National Park to change this.

With the implementation of our program, the AIS and VMS surveillance systems now monitor 100% of the park, all rangers are fully trained and certified, and successful prosecutions of environmental crimes increased to 84%. Due to strong enforcement, there have been zero reported shark finning cases in the reserve since 2014 and the Galapagos now boasts the densest shark population in the world. Although fishing boats surround the reserve, they fear to enter due to the threat of prosecution for illegal entry. The Galapagos National Park is a Regional Leader, exemplifying effective marine conservation for Latin America. They have previously sponsored training workshops in Ecuador, providing mentorship and sharing their best practices with other sites in the region.

We see Regional Leadership as key to WildAid’s expansion of the BLUEprint approach. In order to expand our program regionally, WildAid has been piloting different approaches to identify the right in-country partners that are ready to implement a complete Marine Protection System. We decided to test a Discovery Workshop approach, which would allow us to bring together multiple sites to discuss their current enforcement capabilities and needs.

2018 Discovery Workshop

Together with the Galapagos National Park, we hosted the first regional MPA enforcement workshop for Latin America in July as a pilot test for our new Discovery Workshop approach. Attendees from seven countries and more than 30 MPAs shared their successes and challenges in the protection of their MPA. The Galapagos acted as regional leaders at the workshop, sharing strategies and tools for enforcement shaped during our long-term partnership.

This workshop worked well because:

  1. Countries were pre-vetted to ensure each site was ready to partner with WildAid in implementing a complete Marine Protection System.
  2. Attendees were high level MPA managers or government officials with the ability to make decisions in these areas, which meant that we could start a conversation about partnership in person and then continue discussing the feasibility of conducting a project remotely.
  3. Galapagos National Park shared their own strategies and best practices for enforcing laws in the Galapagos Marine Reserve—highlighting WildAid’s role in shaping the current system. This allowed sites to see a real working example of how the BLUEprint can work at a particular site and what Regional Leadership means to us.
  4. WildAid staff had the opportunity to present other case studies of our work, give more details on the BLUEprint for MPA Success, invite the people at this workshop to discuss a potential pilot project in their own country or MPA.
  5. Each country presented their own approach to enforcement and the things that work well, and areas that could use help. This allowed WildAid to quickly identify where threats and opportunities aligned with our approach, as well as conduct follow-up conversations.
  6. Lastly, participants in the workshop learned from each other and identified simple ways to improve enforcement in their own sites. They developed concrete project plans that they could pitch to donors and NGO partners, and through the use of a WhatsApp group, participants are still able to share successes and challenges with each other.

The outcome of this workshop was that our participants received valuable insights into what makes a successful Marine Protection System, found peers confronting similar threats that could act as a future resource for them, and we found three sites that are likely candidates for a WildAid project and future assessment. The workshop allowed us to meet with the right people to facilitate logistics and act as on-the-ground partners and when used in tandem with the Project Feasibility Index, we could quickly assess the feasibility of a project in that area. Overall, this workshop provided a valuable opportunity for the Galapagos National Park to share their expertise in managing a comprehensive Marine Protection System, and lead the way to successful marine conservation throughout Latin America.

We look forward to sharing additional lessons learned with you as we continue scaling WildAid’s marine program.