Surveillance Technology Review and Key Factors for Selection

This document provides a reference point for managers considering surveillance technology options for improving mission efficacy and operational efficiency. While the physical presence of an authority (boats in the water crewed by trained rangers) and outreach remain two of the best deterrents, the right surveillance technology can complement these efforts and ensure better coverage of a designated space.

Designing a Marine Law Enforcement System

The following process flowchart can be used to walk managers through the design of a marine enforcement system. Given the numerous components and tools, we have attempted to map out the key factors, which ultimately will help managers determine the type of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) system and tools to be considered in their particular context. We’ve identified the following four key factors:
1. Geographical Analysis
2. Fisher Profile
3. Legal Framework
4. MCS System

Patrol Planning Checklist

This patrol planning checklist can be used to prepare your boat crews/ boarding teams for patrols in your area of operations. The checklist includes typical planning elements to ensure safe completion of operational mission goals. However, it is not designed to plan for every potential contingency or mission need. Mission planners should customize as needed.

Negotiating an Inter-Institutional Agreement for Joint Patrols

In situations where enforcement operations exceed the jurisdiction of MPA or fishery enforcement officers, we recommend the negotiation of a bilateral agreement and/or MOU with another authority (such as the Navy or another environmental enforcement agency) to strengthen and better coordinate surveillance and patrol efforts. The following chart outlines suggested points to include in an MOU between an MPA/ fishery and Navy/ other enforcement agency.

Evidence Collection and Case File Preparation

The following documents contain a sample job aid and checklist for MPA or fishery enforcement officers, a sample citation form, evidence log and receipt, photo log, and ranger statement form. These templates can be used to prepare a comprehensive case file for each infraction. Job aids and checklists enable Park Rangers and other staff to supplement their training and perform a job even if they do not recall all of the specifics, actions, or steps associated with that job. Job aids and checklists should be printed on water resistant paper and small enough to easily fit into a pocket or clipboard.

Palau Northern Reef Assessment

The Northern Reef Project is home to some of Palau’s most productive fishing grounds and encompasses a total of 3,930 km2 of territorial waters pertaining to the states of Kayangel and Ngarchelong. Its waters include important habitats of coral reef systems and offer spawning and aggregation sites for nationally protected fish species and breeding areas for seabirds among other species. Given the decline in fisheries, both states have recently established marine law enforcement programs to reverse trends and protect their near shore territorial waters (12NM).

In this report, we analyze the legal framework, competencies and jurisdictions of all marine enforcement agencies in order to design an enforcement system for the Northern Reef project that is practical, affordable and feasible to implement over a four-year timeframe.

Nearshore Artisanal Fisheries Enforcement Guide

We need healthy oceans to support our way of life. 20% of the world’s population derives at least one-fifth of its animal protein intake from fish, and some small island states depend almost exclusively on fish. Unfortunately, fish stocks are under growing pressure and the need to find innovative and pragmatic resource management strategies is more important than ever. Disregard for fisheries and environmental laws is common and if we are to succeed in reversing the declining trend, we must draft relevant regulations, design and fund comprehensive enforcement programs and cultivate a culture of compliance. Historically, marine law enforcement has been the competency of Naval and Coast Guard authorities; however, many fishery and park agencies, who lack training, equipment, and at times controlling legal authority, are tasked with fisheries management and enforcement. Complicating matters, most agencies are understaffed; lack budgetary resources, and possess limited authority (i.e. power of arrest and the ability to use force).

WildAid in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy developed this guide to assist managers in designing a cost-effective enforcement strategy for near shore artisanal fisheries. This guide:

1.Examines all factors considered for the design and operation of a marine law enforcement system;
2.Illustrates key components of an enforcement system and evaluates surveillance technology and patrol equipment options;
3.Guides managers in the design and implementation of an enforcement system.

In summary, we aim to equip managers with the tools needed to strengthen fisheries management and design enforcement systems that are practical, affordable and feasible to implement in a timely manner. Fisheries enforcement requires a holistic approach that accounts for surveillance, interdiction, systematic training, education and outreach and lastly, meaningful sanctions. Although we explore many surveillance technologies and management tools, we more importantly provide a blueprint for the capacity building and professionalization of enforcement officers, who truly are the core component of any fisheries enforcement program.

The Tun Mustapha Compliance Plan

The Tun Mustapha Marine Park (TMP) is home to mangrove forests, sea grass beds and coral reefs all of which serve as a critical breeding ground for resident marine species, as well as migratory species such as whale sharks. TMP’s waters are home to at least 82 species of hard corals, 715 species of fishes, 50 species of molluscs, 25 species of snails and 130 species of seaweed. Given the decline in fisheries, the Sabah government recently established the TMP to reverse trends and protect territorial waters.

In this report, we analyze the legal framework, competencies and jurisdictions of all marine enforcement agencies in order to design an enforcement system for the TMP project that is practical, affordable and feasible to implement over a four-year timeframe.

Enforcement Assessment Batbitim and Daram No-Take Zones

Raja Ampat is located in the center of the Coral Triangle and is home to the highest concentration of fish and coral biodiversity found anywhere in the world today. The area is geographically isolated, networked with deeper reefs and surrounded by open seas, creating an oasis for pelagic fish. The Batbitim and Daram no-take zones are located within the Southeast Misool MPA and are separated by 24.6 nautical miles. The areas are characterized by their abundance of small islands, islets and rocks and an extremely irregular coastline with numerous coves and 100-150m+ peaks. The geographical and topographical complexities pose difficulties for the use of radar and radio communication due to the numerous shadows that are created for microwave and VHF waves, respectively. Both no-take zones are not close to maritime traffic routes.

This assessment evaluated Misool Baseftin enforcement activities in order to strengthen strategic operations, lower recurring operational costs and increase compliance.

The Quarantine Chain

The greatest threat to biodiversity in the Galápagos Islands is the introduction of invasive species. Once a species is introduced, it may be too late or costly to implement a successful eradication program and irreversible damage may occur to native or endemic species of plants, animals, or insects. In recent years, the biological isolation of the archipelago has been significantly reduced given the growing number of planes and cargo reaching the islands. As tourism and population numbers increase exponentially, so do the threats of introducing invasive species.

In this assessment, WildAid analyzed the maritime cargo system that serves as the umbilical cord for the economy and human life on Galápagos. We evaluated all aspects of the current shipping system: mainland and island port facilities, qualifications of biosecurity personnel, equipment, cargo handling at both embarkation and arrival, and cargo vessel standards; essentially all key links in the quarantine chain. We illustrated that there is an urgent need to improve the efficiency and efficacy of maritime cargo handling. We also include a 30-year cargo growth forecast using current demographic trends to inform decision-makers on the future scale of actions required for a biosecure maritime cargo system. Large investments will be required in infrastructure, personnel, and recurring outlays in the not-so-distant future. The assessment concludes with a series of recommendations to improve current inspection and quarantine procedures along each link of the quarantine chain as well as implications for the future.