Surveillance Technology Review and Key Factors for Selection

This document provides a reference point for managers considering surveillance technology options for improving mission efficacy and operational efficiency. While the physical presence of an authority (boats in the water crewed by trained rangers) and outreach remain two of the best deterrents, the right surveillance technology can complement these efforts and ensure better coverage of a designated space.

Designing a Marine Law Enforcement System

The following process flowchart can be used to walk managers through the design of a marine enforcement system. Given the numerous components and tools, we have attempted to map out the key factors, which ultimately will help managers determine the type of Monitoring, Control and Surveillance (MCS) system and tools to be considered in their particular context. We’ve identified the following four key factors:
1. Geographical Analysis
2. Fisher Profile
3. Legal Framework
4. MCS System

Patrol Planning Checklist

This patrol planning checklist can be used to prepare your boat crews/ boarding teams for patrols in your area of operations. The checklist includes typical planning elements to ensure safe completion of operational mission goals. However, it is not designed to plan for every potential contingency or mission need. Mission planners should customize as needed.

Negotiating an Inter-Institutional Agreement for Joint Patrols

In situations where enforcement operations exceed the jurisdiction of MPA or fishery enforcement officers, we recommend the negotiation of a bilateral agreement and/or MOU with another authority (such as the Navy or another environmental enforcement agency) to strengthen and better coordinate surveillance and patrol efforts. The following chart outlines suggested points to include in an MOU between an MPA/ fishery and Navy/ other enforcement agency.

Evidence Collection and Case File Preparation

The following documents contain a sample job aid and checklist for MPA or fishery enforcement officers, a sample citation form, evidence log and receipt, photo log, and ranger statement form. These templates can be used to prepare a comprehensive case file for each infraction. Job aids and checklists enable Park Rangers and other staff to supplement their training and perform a job even if they do not recall all of the specifics, actions, or steps associated with that job. Job aids and checklists should be printed on water resistant paper and small enough to easily fit into a pocket or clipboard.

Palau Northern Reef Assessment

The Northern Reef Project is home to some of Palau’s most productive fishing grounds and encompasses a total of 3,930 km2 of territorial waters pertaining to the states of Kayangel and Ngarchelong. Its waters include important habitats of coral reef systems and offer spawning and aggregation sites for nationally protected fish species and breeding areas for seabirds among other species. Given the decline in fisheries, both states have recently established marine law enforcement programs to reverse trends and protect their near shore territorial waters (12NM).

In this report, we analyze the legal framework, competencies and jurisdictions of all marine enforcement agencies in order to design an enforcement system for the Northern Reef project that is practical, affordable and feasible to implement over a four-year timeframe.

Nearshore Artisanal Fisheries Enforcement Guide

We need healthy oceans to support our way of life. 20% of the world’s population derives at least one-fifth of its animal protein intake from fish, and some small island states depend almost exclusively on fish. Unfortunately, fish stocks are under growing pressure and the need to find innovative and pragmatic resource management strategies is more important than ever. Disregard for fisheries and environmental laws is common and if we are to succeed in reversing the declining trend, we must draft relevant regulations, design and fund comprehensive enforcement programs and cultivate a culture of compliance. Historically, marine law enforcement has been the competency of Naval and Coast Guard authorities; however, many fishery and park agencies, who lack training, equipment, and at times controlling legal authority, are tasked with fisheries management and enforcement. Complicating matters, most agencies are understaffed; lack budgetary resources, and possess limited authority (i.e. power of arrest and the ability to use force).

WildAid in cooperation with The Nature Conservancy developed this guide to assist managers in designing a cost-effective enforcement strategy for near shore artisanal fisheries. This guide:

1.Examines all factors considered for the design and operation of a marine law enforcement system;
2.Illustrates key components of an enforcement system and evaluates surveillance technology and patrol equipment options;
3.Guides managers in the design and implementation of an enforcement system.

In summary, we aim to equip managers with the tools needed to strengthen fisheries management and design enforcement systems that are practical, affordable and feasible to implement in a timely manner. Fisheries enforcement requires a holistic approach that accounts for surveillance, interdiction, systematic training, education and outreach and lastly, meaningful sanctions. Although we explore many surveillance technologies and management tools, we more importantly provide a blueprint for the capacity building and professionalization of enforcement officers, who truly are the core component of any fisheries enforcement program.

The Tun Mustapha Compliance Plan

The Tun Mustapha Marine Park (TMP) is home to mangrove forests, sea grass beds and coral reefs all of which serve as a critical breeding ground for resident marine species, as well as migratory species such as whale sharks. TMP’s waters are home to at least 82 species of hard corals, 715 species of fishes, 50 species of molluscs, 25 species of snails and 130 species of seaweed. Given the decline in fisheries, the Sabah government recently established the TMP to reverse trends and protect territorial waters.

In this report, we analyze the legal framework, competencies and jurisdictions of all marine enforcement agencies in order to design an enforcement system for the TMP project that is practical, affordable and feasible to implement over a four-year timeframe.

Enforcement Assessment Batbitim and Daram No-Take Zones

Raja Ampat is located in the center of the Coral Triangle and is home to the highest concentration of fish and coral biodiversity found anywhere in the world today. The area is geographically isolated, networked with deeper reefs and surrounded by open seas, creating an oasis for pelagic fish. The Batbitim and Daram no-take zones are located within the Southeast Misool MPA and are separated by 24.6 nautical miles. The areas are characterized by their abundance of small islands, islets and rocks and an extremely irregular coastline with numerous coves and 100-150m+ peaks. The geographical and topographical complexities pose difficulties for the use of radar and radio communication due to the numerous shadows that are created for microwave and VHF waves, respectively. Both no-take zones are not close to maritime traffic routes.

This assessment evaluated Misool Baseftin enforcement activities in order to strengthen strategic operations, lower recurring operational costs and increase compliance.

An Analysis of the Law Enforcement Chain in the Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape

The Eastern Tropical Pacific Seascape (ETPS) is located at the far eastern edge of the tropical Pacific Ocean, to the south of Costa Rica and Panama, and to the west of Colombia and mainland Ecuador. In recognition of their great ecological value, their value as endangered species habitats, and for their natural beauty, four of the five MPAs (with the exception of Gorgona) located in the ETPS have been designated as UNESCO World Natural Heritage Sites. UNESCO first recognized Cocos Island National Park in 1997, then the Galapagos Marine Reserve in 2001, Coiba National Park in 2005, and Malpelo Flora and Fauna Sanctuary in 2006. All these islands and their surrounding ocean share certain features – their isolation from the mainland, their endemic species, and their relatively pristine state of protection and conservation. This region boasts diverse endemic marine and terrestrial species, including: sharks, five species of sea turtles, endangered blue and humpback whales, various tuna species and extensive coral reefs.

Although there are strong commercial fishing and tourism links between the four Seascape countries, there is little collaboration on issues relating to environmental management. Vessels from these countries frequently operate illegally in waters belonging to their neighbor states. Currently, legislation regarding these issues is minimal or non-existent. It is clear that not only are there shared weaknesses amongst the MPAs, but that their scarce resources are not being used in the most cost-effective and efficient manner.

In order to strengthen the conservation of the core MPAs, it is essential to determine and evaluate the critical factors affecting law enforcement in each MPA.We developed a comprehensive investigative methodology that highlights the critical factors required for the successful application of law.